Until recently, access to the internet was possible through desktops, smartphones, or tablets. But, with emergence of Internet of Things also known as IoT, all devices can connect to the internet. What’s more astounding to know is that you can control them remotely.

Aren’t you curious how is it possible?

Let’s dive deep into the world of IoT.

The concept of IoT wasn’t popular until 2011 when Gartner mentioned in his tech list. Although Kevin Ashton coined the term before. It is a system of interconnected devices that exchange information through the internet. Human intervention is null here, all you need is Internet.

You might be wondering what could be the “things” in Internet of Things? It can range from Air conditioner to security alarms and air quality detectors. In the current scenario, almost every industry uses Internet.


Although IoT existed since 1990s, execution of AI, Machine Learning with IoT has yielded practical solutions. How they work is a fascinating process.

All the devices have sensors in them that scans objects. Apart from that, CPU, and software to operate are key components. To connect to the internet, all devices need IP address. A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server assigns IP addresses to the devices. Its example can be a Wi-Fi router.

Gateways ease the connection between these devices and the internet. These gateways interpret the signals and data collected by the sensors and store in the cloud. Clouds act as both storage and processing unit. The information stored is further used for studying and learning.

Most of the times, you control these devices through a smartphone application. Other times, sensors do that for you. For example, the AC turns on when you enter the room.


The IoT architecture consists of four layers. Layered architecture allows for effective communication and troubleshooting. Benefits of this layered architecture is :

Divide the complex network into manageable layers.

Every layer work independently. This allows architects to specialize in development.

Coming to the architecture of IoT, at the bottom layer we have:


This includes all the devices with sensors which can sense, compute and communicate with other devices. Protocols such as Bluetooth and Modbus enable connection to the upper layer.


This layer effectively assemble data from various sensors. IoT gateways provide functionality to the architecture. It processes the data, ensures connectivity to the cloud and reliable transmission to servers.


This layers houses algorithms and data processing elements. This is also a cloud-based layer and stores all sensor data. Handling communication that transcends all layers happens in this layer.


This layer act as an interface between a user and the infrastructure. All these layers are managed by device and access managers, makes it a seamless process.


Home appliances such as fire alarm, security alarm and sensor devices find use at our homes. One popular example is Google Home which enables you to control alarm, temperature, etc .

Healthcare industry rely heavily on IoT. Monitoring health and notification system is not something new for us. We have smart watches to notify our blood sugar levels or to count steps. These devices create internetwork of intelligent sensors, capable enough to compute and process information.

IoT can assemble and integrate processes in the transportation network. Advanced toll systems, smart traffic signals and proximity sensors enable dynamic interaction among vehicles.

You can track and manage air quality in your homes, cafes or indoors. Foobot is one such device that measures air quality index accurately.


The major highlight is the explosive growth of devices being connected and controlled via the internet. Diversity in devices means diverse characteristics in one device from the other. Yet, few basic characteristics remain intact such as intelligence and decentralization.

Technology has already has proven record of providing a new level of comfort and automating everyday tasks. But wisdom, what’s that about? We all know that wisdom comes from sensing things around us. Not only that but also collecting and processing those data for deep learning. It’s fascinating to see how it comes together with patterns and trends to form knowledge.

Over a course of time, what we derive from knowledge is wisdom. So, yes, IoT is the perfect thing to collect these data and turn them into wisdom and move the human race forward.

Have you heard about Google Flu in the news? So, what Google has done is they tracking of location and frequency of search terms related to flu – flu symptoms and precautions. What they noticed was there was a pattern between these search terms and where flu activity was.

With these data they build a website, Google Flu, housing all the live locations and stats. It came handy for medical care units and hospitals to understand where it was occurring. Because an early detection of a disease  reduces its effects on lot of people.

By the end of 2025, reports say 75 billion devices will be connected to the Internet. Currently, it  includes laptops, smart watches, security cameras, thermostats, etc. But new and latest devices are in line.

This the beginning of AI and IoT coming together to bring innovation and new possibilities.

Featured Image Source: Image by macrovector on Freepik

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